Savanna and forest at base of Cerro Yutajé

Abstract: close to 400 species are identified within a 10 km. radius of Yutajé Camp in northern Amazonas state, south central Venezuela. A wide diversity of habitat types are surveyed, including wetlands (rivers, forest streams, oxbow lagoons and Morichale swamp), Terra Firme and Varzea forest, dry and flooded savanna and the lower slopes of Yutajé Tepui, in addition to small patches of white sandy-soil woodland and forest. Numerous raptors include nesting Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja), Solitary Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus solitarius) and a notable range extension and breeding status are confirmed for Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis). Alleged low-hunting pressure, as enforced by Camp owners since the 70’s, has led to visibly high densities of Curassow spp. and other Cracids (as well as primates and other mammals). Wetlands such as flooded savanna, varzea scrub and morichale swamps hold numerous specialty species, including Agami Heron (Agamia agami), Point-tailed Palmcreeper (Berlepschia riker), lekking Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) and nesting Cherrie’s Antwren (Myrmotherula cherriei), and two white-sand forest specialists are confirmed, Black Manakin (Xenopipo atronitens) and White-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus phoenicius). The proximity of Cerro Yutajé leads to presence of Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis) and various altitude-specific Apodidae species as well as Tepui Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca panychlora) and Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis). Forests include the usual cohorts of northern Amazonian Furnarids and Thamnophilids yet more resources are needed to survey forest canopy passerines, notably members of the Tyrannidae and Thraupidae. Additional time should be spent on the lower slopes of Yutajé Tepui in order to fully evaluate the full species composition (including possible Tepui endemics) of this ecologically diverse and biogeographically distinct part of the Venezuelan Guiana region (Stotz et al., 1996).

From top to bottom: Yutajé’s high-density patchwork of habitat include savanna, Terre firme, Varzea and lower Tepui slope forests and slash-and-burn gardens; Forest border along Manapiare river; Great Potoo, Nyctibius grandis . (c) Valerie Druguet


Great Tinamou Tinamus major

Forests throughout, a few active nests found

Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus

Savanna forest border

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulates

Riverine woodland along Yutajé River and slash and burn second growth at Pto Nuevo. One active nest found.

Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui

Forests throughout

Variegated Tinamou Crypturellus variegates

Savanna forest border

Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus

Most visible in dry season, flocks up and down Manapiare river

Anhinga Anhinga anhinga

Flocks of 100+ overhead in rainy season, otherwise lone individuals foraging along Manapiare river

White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata

Flooded savanna

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis

Flooded savanna

Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata

Large flocks in flooded savanna, lone individuals along Corocoro tributary (breeding?)

Blue-winged Teal Anas discors

Flooded savanna, winter

Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus

Reported by JF Raggi, Manapiare flood plain.

Zigzag Heron Zebrilus undulates


Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum

Forest border along Manapiare river

Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi

Manapiare river

Great Egret Ardea alba

Large flocks overhead, rainy season; flooded savanna

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Flooded savanna

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

Manapiare river

Tricolored Heron Hydranassa tricolor

A few records, lower Manapiare River and flooded savanna, January 1997

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

Savanna (w/cattle) and flooded savanna

Striated Heron Butorides striatus

Forest border Manapiare river

Green Heron Butorides virescens

One record Feb 1998

Agami Heron Agamia agami

Manapiare River at border of Varzea/flooded savanna. Multiple sightings.

Whistling Heron

‘Regular in dry season”, fide Raggi - Manapiare floodplain.

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus

Occasional lower Manapiare river, gallery forest in flooded savanna

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

Occasional Manapiare river

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea

One record April 1997

Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius

Manpiare river

Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis

Manapiare, Yutajé and Corocoro rivers

Bare-faced Ibis Phimosus infuscatus

Flooded savanna, dry season, small flocks of less than 10 ind

Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja

Flooded savanna, dry season, ‘regular”, fide Raggi

Wood Stork Mycteria Americana

Flooded savanna + small oxbow lagoon (Pto Nuevo – large flock, March 1998)

Jabiru Jabiru mycteria

Manapiare river and flooded savanna. 2 nests, active in dry AND rainy season

Maguari Stork Euxenura maguari

1, June 2006, in flight, flooded savanna, from airplane, approaching YUtajé camp from south

King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa


Black Vulture Coragyps atratus


Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura


Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus


Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus


Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Manapiare and Yutajé rivers, Oct-March

Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis

Occasional sightings, Manapiare River

Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus

1 July 1997, Manapiare river

Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus

Throughout, flocks – one flock dipping into Manapiare river near Cascada Yutajé to drink, July 1996

Pearl Kite Gampsonyx swainsonii

1 record flooded savanna July 1996

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus

2 records, 1 Yutajé savanna July 1996, 2 together “Yavi” savanna June 1997

Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus

Occasional sightings, following Saki monkeys, forests throughout

Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea

Throughout, found nesting Pto Nuevo slash and burn gardens

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens

Occasional sightings forest and savanna/ forest border. Pair flying over savanna attacked by F. femoralis (July 1998)

Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor

Occasional sightings, 1 feeding off hummingbird species at flowering Inga tree August 1996

White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis

Occasional throughout

Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops

1 record January 2006, Transitional forest - Yutajé

Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis

Yutajé savanna, nest found

Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga

Regular sightings Manapiare river

Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis

Flooded savanna

Solitary Eagle Harpyhaliaetus solitarius

1 record October 2008

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris


Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus

Regular sightings above open-vegetation ridge of southwestern slope of Cerro Yutajé

White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus


Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja

Nest found Corocoro river, known by Piaroa community members of Pto Nuevo, visited July 1996, 1 adult (plumage) at nest. No birds seen following year. Possible individual sighted following southern slope Cerro Yutajé, above canopy, same year.

Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle Spizastur melanoleucus:

Body parts in possession of Piaroa community members, Pto Nuevo, June 1999

Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus

Regular sightings Manapiare river

Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus

1 sighting Manapiare river June 1997

Black Caracara Daptrius ater:

Manapiare river

Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus

Forests throughout

Northern Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway

Savanna, 1 active nest found March 1998

Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon Micrastur mirandollei

1 visual July 1998

Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus

Recorded (DAT), Varzea and transitional forest

Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis

Savanna, regular, 1 active nest found June 1997

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis

Manapiare river

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

1, possibly 2 individuals, December 1996, flooded savanna

Little Chachalaca Ortalis motmot

Local. Savanna/forest border. Fledgling found June 2006 inside ‘transitional’ near Camp

Spix’s Guan Penelope jacquacu

Throughout, frequent

Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis

Manapiare river border, frequent

Crestless Curassow Mitu tomentosa

Throughout, frequent

Black Curassow Crax alector

Throughout, frequent

Crested Bobwhite Colinus cristatus


Marbled Wood-Quail Odontophorus gujanensis

Forests throughout

Grey-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajanea

Manapiare river border

Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica

Flooded savanna

Sungrebe Heliornis fulica

Occasional sightings Manapiare river

Sunbittern Eurypyga helias

Regular sightings Manapiare river

Limpkin Aramus guarauna

Border of Varzea/flooded savanna

Grey-winged Trumpeter Psophia crepitans

Forests throughout, common ‘pet’ at Puerto Nuevo

Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis

Occasional, Manapiare river and savanna (airstrip)

Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana

Oxbow lagoon/Manapiare river and flooded savanna

Pied Plover Hoploxypterus cayanus

Occasional, Manapiare river

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes

Flooded savanna

Solitary sandpiper Tringa solitaria

Manapiare river

Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia

Manapiare and Yutajé rivers

South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae

Flooded savanna

Black Skimmer Rynchops nigra

Occasional, Manapiare river, dry season

Scaled Pigeon Columba speciosa


Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis


Ruddy Pigeon Columba subvinacea


Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

Flooded savanna, small groups

Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerine


Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti


Blue Ground-Dove Claravis pretiosa

1 record April 1997, Yutajé Camp, small flock in flight

Grey-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla

Forests throughout

Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon Montana

Forests throughout

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Most frequent of 2 larger Ara species

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Occasional pairs or solitary individuals joining flocks of A. chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

Morichale/Varzea/breeding slash and burn forests Pto Nuevo and Morichale

Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata

Morichale, Varzea/breeding slash and burn forests Pto Nuevo and Morichale

Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax

Occasional Savanna/forest border, Morichale and flooded savanna

Painted Parakeet Pyrrhura picta

Occasional Manapiare river border

Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura

Regular Manapiare river border. Small foraging flocks

Tepui Parrotlet Nannopsittaca panychlora

Occasional flocks overhead, 1 of ca. 100 ind. in camp, foraging, December 1996, forest canopy

Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet Touit huetii

Occasional sightings, rainy season, far over head – in pairs

Black-headed Parrot Pionites melanocephala

Forests throughout

Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi

Forests throughout

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus

Forests throughout

Yellow-crowned Parrot Amazona ochrocephala

Forests throughout

Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica

Forests throughout

Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa

1 captive individual, taken from nest when chick, Pto Nuevo – said to be “from area”

Coccyzus sp.

March 1997, foraging in canopy of Terra firme forest, ‘white-breasted’ cuckoo, C. euleri or C. americanus

Dark-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus melacoryphus

4 records from July 1996, Manapiare river, forest border, includiing 2 ind foraging together in viney tangles above water. Of austral migrant population?

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana

Throughout, nest with young July 1997, Savanna, patch of scrub woodland near forest border

Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya melanogaster


Greater Ani Crotophaga major

Manapiare river

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani


Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia


Rufous-winged Ground-Cuckoo – Neomorphus rufipennis

Seen regularly w/ Peccary, Fide Raggi, Pto Nuevo community members, when hunting

Barn Owl Tyto alba

1 savanna/forest border, airstrip April 1997

Tropical Screech-Owl Otus choliba

Manapiare river border; nesting inferred: one baby owl taken as pet by Pto Nuevo community members

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum

1 savanna/forest border July 1997, mobbed by SF Tyrannulet, Gnatcatcher, B-b tanagers

Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata

1 after dusk Tepui slope terra firme July 1996

Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata

Occasionally heard, Manapiare river border, in camp

Oilbird Steatornis caripensis

Occasional, dry and rainy season, Manapiare river, at night. Both heard (above) and seen (river edge vegetation). Breeding cave on Cerro Yutajé or Corocoro?

Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis

Manapiare river border. Frequent in camp.

Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus

Frequent Yutajé savanna/forest border

Short-tailed Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus

Regular observations, lone individuals, Manapiare river, dusk

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis

Savanna; one ind. found roosting on ground beneath bush in March 1998, next to airstrip

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis


Rufous Nightjar Caprimulgus rufus

Yutajé savanna

Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus nigrescens

1 sighting flooded forest, base of Cerro Yutajé, July 1996, daytime perched on branch overhanging stream

Spot-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus maculicaudus

Yutajé Savanna

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Large foraging flocks overhead, descending from Cerro Yutajé to feed over savanna, forest and rivers

Tepui Swift Cypseloides phelpsi

Occasional observations of lone individuals with foraging flocks of S. zonaris

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyuran

Occasional sightings, Manapiare river, Varzea.

Band-rumped Swift Chaetura spinicauda

Manapiare river, frequent

Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris

Manapiare river, frequent

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayennensis

Occasional. Found nesting Yutajé Camp.

Neotropical Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata


Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsute

Terra firme & transitional forests

Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes niger

Terra firme & transitional forests

White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus


Rupurumi Hermit Phaethornis rupurumii

Throughout; lek found at border of Terra Firme forest on lower, southern slope of Cerro Yutajé, January 2006, in amongst giant ground bromeliads.

Eastern Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis superciliosus


Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber

Throughout, active nest found February 1999, found displaying in rainy season 1996 and 97

Grey-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis

Terra firme & transitional

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora


Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis


Ruby-topaz Hummingbird Chrysolampis mosquitus

Flooded savanna

Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus

2 sightings, 1 July 1996 flowering Inga tree with other hummers, 1 December 1996 savanna forest border

Lophornis/Discosura sp.

1 female, white band on rump, flowering Inga with other hummers

Blue-chinned sapphire Chlorestes notatus


Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata

Forest throughout, seems fond of large Heliconia patches in Terra firme

Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina

occasional sightings flowering trees on Manapiare river/forest border

White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus

Forest border, Manapiare river, frequent; males found advertising in June/July (rainy season) in stunted part of transitional forest

Green-tailed Goldenthroat Polytmus theresiae

Savanna/terra firme forest border, occasional sightings

White-chested Emerald Amazilia chionopectus


Versicolored Emerald Amazilia versicolor


Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata

Slash and burn gardens, Pto Nuevo

Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx aurita

Forests throughout

Long-billed Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris

Savanna, river/forest border

Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus

Forests throughout

Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis

Forests throughout, nests in arboreal termite mounds and ant nests

Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Trogon violaceus

Forests throughout, nests in arboreal termite mounds and ant nests

Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata

Rivers throughout, breeding confirmed, large groups in rainy season

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona

Rivers throughout

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle Americana

Rivers throughout

Green-and-rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda

Rivers throughout, inside Varzea, transitional forests and along streams in Terre Firme

Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea

Rivers throughout, inside varzea, transitional forests and along streams in Terre Firme

Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota

Forest throughout, nests found

Brown Jacamar Brachygalba lugubris

Forest canopy and border, Manapiare river

Yellow-billed Jacamar Galbula albirostris

Seen once along stream, in understory of Terra firme forest beneath Cerro Yutajé, and recorded (DAT) in Varzea forest, Manapiare River.

Green-tailed Jacamar Galbula galbula


Great Jacamar Jacamerops aureus

Terra firme (lower Tepui slope and lowland)

Russet-throated Puffbird Hypnelus ruficollis

December 1996

Rusty-breasted Nunlet Nonnula rubecula

1 record inside forest July 1997.

Spotted Puffbird Bucco tamatia

Possible DAT recording (background) 1997/ Occasional observations hence, river /forest border. Nest found in arboreal termite mound (palm tree) lower Manapiare river/varzea forest border, july 1998.

Black Nunbird Monasa atra

Forests throughout

Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Rivers, throughout, Nests found.

Gilded Barbet Capito auratus

Forests throughout

Many-banded Aracari Pteroglossus pluricinctus

Forests throughout

Ivory-billed Aracari Pteroglossus azara

Forests throughout

Green Aracari Pteroglossus viridis

Forests throughout

Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus

Forests throughout

White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus – red-billed form

Forests throughout

Golden-spangled Piculet Picumnus exilis

Forests throughout

Spot-breasted Woodpecker Chrysoptilus punctigula

Flooded savanna/forest border, lower Manapiare river

Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans

Forests throughout

Scale-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus

Forests throughout

Cream-coloured Woodpecker Celeus flavus

Forests throughout

Ringed Woodpecker Celeus torquatus

Forests throughout

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus


Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus

Forests throughout, most visible slash and burn/forest borders, Pto Nuevo

Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus

Savanna woodland, gallery forest

Woodpecker sp. Veniliornis cassini/affinis

2 records, january 1997 & march 1998, transitional forest ; with high-canopy mixed spp. flocks

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos


Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens

Forest/savanna border (especially scrub woodland), savanna woodland ‘islands’, dense savanna woodland

Plain-crowned Spinetail Synallaxis gujanensis

1 record, July 1998, transitional forest trail, Yutajé camp

Ruddy Spinetail Synallaxis rutilans

Forests throughout

Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomea

Flooded savanna

Point-tailed Palmcreeper Berlepschia rikeri

Sound recording (DAT) march 1998 Morichale swamp/dry season

Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Philydor pyrrhodes

Transitional forest near Pto Nuevo (mistnet)

Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner Philydor ruficaudatus

1 sighting, mixed spp. canopy flock, January 1997

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus

Forests throughout

Plain Xenops Xenops minutus

Forests throughout

Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus

recorded July 1997; 2 birds answered to playback, transitional forest. Pair? 1 in mistnet.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa:

Forests throughout

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus

Forests throughout

Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris

Varzea and transitional

Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia

Forests throughout

Black-banded Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes picumnus

Forests throughout

Striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus obsoletus

Forests throughout

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

Forests throughout

Lineated Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus

1 record, gallery forest lower Manapiare river - varzea/flooded savanna border, January 2006

Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus

Varzea forest /river border, Manapiare river

Great Antshrike Taraba major

Slash and burn forest border (second growth), Pto Nuevo

Blackish-grey Antshrike Thamnophilus nigrocinereus

Varzea forest border, Manapiare river

White-shouldered antshrike Thamnophilus aethiops

Forests throughout – predominantly Terra Firme ?

Guianan Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus punctatus

Forest/savanna border, scrub woodland and savanna forest-‘islands’, gallery forest, second growth

Amazonian Antshrike Thamnophilus amazonicus

Forest throughout

Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris

Forest throughout

Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis

First identified by song around Pto Nuevo in July 2006, pair seen in viney tangles above slight incline with boulder outcrops on trail leading to fresh slash and burn

Dusky-throated Antshrike Thamnomanes ardesiacus

Forest throughout

Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius

Terra firme, most frequently seen at antswarms

Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyuran

Varzea/river border, Manapiare River

Cherrie’s Antwren Myrmotherula cherriei

Varzea and varzea scrub/flooded savanna border. Found nesting in low-canopied varzea, lower Manapiare river, in overhanging branch a few meters above water; nest, male and female filmed with video camera. Habitat fitting description of habitat in Hilty : ‘thickets and palm-filled borders of low-canopied, seasonally flooded forest’

(Guianan Streaked-Antwren Myrmotherula surinamensis)

Possible confusion with former (?). Ind. birds seen throughout, alone or with mixed species flocks, including Terra firme

Rufous-bellied Antwren Myrmotherula guttata

Forests throughout

White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris

Forest throughout

Long-winged Antwren Myrmotherula longipennis

1 sighting, army ant swarm, Terra firme lower Tepui slope

Spot-backed Antwren Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus

Varzea forest, river border, lower Manapiare river

White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia

Forest/savanna border, scrub woodland and savanna forest-‘islands’, including white sand areas.

Grey Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens

Viney tangles in forests throughout

(Dusky Antbird Cercomacra tyrannina)

Possible recording in background (DAT) february 1999 – varzea forest/river border

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

Forests throughout, in addition to gallery forest and forest/savanna borders

Black-chinned Antbird Hypocnemoides melanopogon

Forests throughout, near water

Dot-backed Antbird Hylophylax punctulata

Varzea forest, on territory daytime vocalizations in rainy season

Scale-backed Antbird Hylophylax poecilinota

Forests throughout

Spot-winged Antbird Schistocichla leucostigma

I individual female, western (lower) slope of Cerro Yutajé, small stream, alarm calling, Juy 1996

Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia

Varzea/river border, Manapiare River

White-bellied Antbird Myrmeciza longipes

Forest/savanna border, scrub woodland/patches of stunted forest, savanna forest-‘islands’, gallery forest, second growth (slash and burn) – and transitional forest. Probably ‘most common’ understory antbird.

Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax

Forests throughout

White-plumed Antbird Pithys albifrons

Occasional sightings, antswarms or ‘random’

Rufous-throated Antbird Gymnopithys rufigula

Forests throughout; frequent alarm calling

Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma

Forests throughout

Slender-footed Tyrannulet Zimmerius gracilipes

Occasional sightings throughout, with mixed species flocks

White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme

1 sighting in high canopy mixed species flock, Terra firme, July 1996

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus

Forests throughout

Gray Elaenia , Myiopagis caniceps

1 sighting, January 1997 with high canopy mixed species flock

Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii

Occasional sightings in Mixed spp. flocks, medium and high-canopied Terra Firme

Yellow-crowned Elaenia Myiopagis flavivertex

1 record, mistnetted, lower tier, streamside, Terra Firme forest, January 1997

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster


Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis

Savanna (+mistnet)

Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata

Savanna (+mistnet)

Rufous-crowned Elaenia Elaenia ruficeps

2 sightings, gallery forest, Yutajé River, foraging with mixed species flock.

Yellow Tyrannulet Capsiempis flaveola

Slash and burn gardens, Puerto Nuevo.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleaginous

Varzea and transitional forest; males displaying December/January

Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus

Terra Firme & transitional (mistnet)

Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquata

Forests throughout

Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus galeatus

Forests throughout; including slash and burn, second growth, forest/savanna border

Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus sylvia

slash and burn, second growth, forest/savanna border & scrub woodland

Painted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum pictum

Forests throughout, nesting confirmed march 1998 (Terre firme tree fall gap)

Rufous-tailed Flatbill Ramphotrigon ruficauda

Forests throughout

Yellow-olive Flatbill Tolmomyias sulphurescens

Forest borders, slash and burn gardens, second growth (Pto Nuevo/nesting)

Grey-crowned Flatbill Tolmomyias poliocephalus

Forest borders; found nesting on forest/river border (Manapiare river), in Myrmecophyte, low down, at river’s edge

(Zimmer’s Flatbill Tolmomyias assimilis)

Possible ID in Terra Firme forest, lower tepui slope

Ochre-lored Flatbill Tolmomyias flaviventris

Second growth of slash and burn gardens and transitional forest (savanna/forest borders w/ mixed spp. flocks)

White-crested Spadebill Platyrinchus platyrhynchos

1 record July

Cinnamon-crested Spadebill Platyrinchus saturatus

1 sighting streamside, lower tier of Terra firme forest March 1997. Mistnet.

Golden-crowned Spadebill Platyrinchus coronatus

2 birds, male displaying, Terra firme lower Tepui slope July 1996

Amazonian Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus

Frequent sightings near Yutajé camp, stream banks near bridge in transitional forest (trail). Old nest found.

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus

Forests throughout

Vermilion flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus

Flooded savanna, Manapiare flood plain

Amazonian Black Tyrant Knipolegus poecilocercus

2 sightings, 1 terra firme forest, streamside, with mixed species flock, July 1996; 1 varzea/river border, Manapiare river, March 1998

Pied Water-Tyrant Fluvicola pica

Flooded savanna, occ sightings on river Manapiare (dry season)

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala

Flooded savanna

Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus

Forests throughout

Cinnamon Attila Attila cinnamomeus

Varzea forest

Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex

Forests throughout

(Pale-bellied Mourner Rhytipterna immunda)

Possible sighting gallery forest/flooded savanna border, lower Manapiare river, January 2006 (dry season)

Dusky-Capped Flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer

1 sighting, transitional forest, pair inside forest, foraging along open trail

Swainson’s Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni

Forest border/Manapiare river

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox

Forest borders, frequent w/ mixed spp. flocks

Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus

Savanna woodland

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus:

Flooded savanna

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor:

1 record July 1996, Corocoro river, inside terra firme forest and multiple in gallery forest/savanna border, lower Manapiare river.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis

In camp, breeding; savanna forest borders

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculates

Forest borders, slash and burn gardens/second growth

Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius

Associated with C. cela

Sulphury Flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea

Morichale swamp, breeding

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus


Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savanna

Throughout; either in large flocks or breeding (males displaying in savanna)

Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdinus

Forests throughout

Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans

Interesting non occurrence of this otherwise common Amazonian species, minus one bird heard July 1998 in medium canopied forest at base of Cerro Yutajé, and picture-perfect imitations offered by displaying male C. cela near Camp (DAT recorded). Breeds in area? Interviewees confirmed that “yes, within walking distance, towards Yavi”, a Tepui east of Yutajé.

Cinereous mourner Laniocera hypopyrra

Forests throughout

White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus

Yutajé camp, gallery forest (Yutajé river), forest/savanna borders

Black-capped Becard Pachyramphus marginatus

1 sighting, canopy, Transitional forest, January 1997

Pink-throated Becard Platypsaris minor

Slash and burn garden, 1 breeding pair, Pto Nuevo, July 20062

Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor

Savanna woodland (seen entering nesting cavity)

Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana


Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayana

Forests throughout. Loose group of males seen in display posture, Transitional forest, near Yutajé Camp. Joins mixed species flocks.

Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus

Throughout, often in flight. Occasionally seen perched in Cecropia stands, Pto Nuevo

Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus

Lek of males found in same spot 97, 98 and again in 2006. Varzea/river border, Manapiare river

Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock Rupicola rupicola

2 Females feeding in canopy together on lower western slope of Cerro Yutajé, July 1996; ind. males seen July 1996 and again in 2006, Transitional forest border, Yutajé Camp. Purported Leks on slopes of Cerro YUtajé and nearby Cerro Corocoro, fide Pto. Nuevo community members.

Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus

Forests throughout

Black Manakin Xenopipo atronitens

1 record, July 1996, foraging with mixed species flock, scrub woodland

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus

Throughout; numerous leks, including one very large in patch of stunted forest at base of Cerro Yutajé.

Golden-headed Manakin Pipra erythrocephala

Throughout; numerous leks

Yellow-crested Manakin Heterocercus flavivertex

1 record gallery forest Yutajé river, 1 record varzea scrub forest border, lower Manapiare river

Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni

Forests throughout

Gray-chested Greenlet Hylophilus semicinereus

Manapiare river/forest borders

Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus:


Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera

Flooded savanna

Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea

Flooded savanna

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer

Flooded savanna

White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata

Manapiare river

White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis

Occasional sightings. 1 pair seen hunting, perched, vocalizing on consecutive weeks at same location, small savanna patch/forest border (f), July 1997. Nesting?

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

Manapiare river

Bank Swallow Riparia riparia

Occasional migrant

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

Occasional migrant

Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus

Flooded savanna

Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis

Throughout along river/forest borers

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Puerto Nuevo slash and burn area, Yutajé Camp, savanna woodland

Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus

Forests throughout

Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea

Savanna woodland

Lawrence’s Thrush Turdus lawrencii

Brought in using playback of T. fumigatus in varzea forest of lower Manapiare river, July 1997. Strong yellow bill. Completely unexpected. Important range extension.

(Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas)

Turdus resembling description of this spcies seen and heard singing intermittently at base of Cerro Yutajé in stunted lower slope woodland and along river at border of ‘transitional’ forest.

Cocoa Thrush Turdus fumigatus

Varzea forest.

White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis

1 record, transitional forest, March 1998. Understory.

Yellow warbler Dendroica aestiva

1 record, march 1998, Manapiare river/forest border

Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata

Regular, in with flocks of T. viridis

Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis

1 record, singing male, March 1998, Morichale

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola


Black-faced Tanager Schistochlamys melanopis:

Savanna woodland

Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis:

Forests throughout, a regular of mixed species flocks.

White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus

Savanna woodland.

Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus:

Forests throughout/borders, canopies

Fulvous-crested Tanager Tachyphonus surinamus

Forests throughout/borders, canopies

Red-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus phoenicius

One record, lower Tepui slope stunted woodland, July 1996. This patch of habitat (h) is located directly ‘above’ patch of white sand Savanna/scrub woodland (n). See map.

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus

Occasional records, second growth and slash and burn gardens.

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

Forest borders, second growth and slash and burn gardens (higher densities?)

Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus


Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum


Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea

Forests throughout (typical of foraging mixed species flocks in Cecropia stands, slash and burn second growth, Pto Nuevo)

White-vented Euphonia Euphonia minuta

Forests throughout

Purple-throated Euphonia Euphonia trinitatis

Savanna woodland

Rufous-bellied Euphonia Euphonia rufiventris

Occasional records, with canopy flocks, forests (including gallery forest)

Plumbeous Euphonia Euphonia plumbea

Second growth, slash and burn, forest borders, nesting Campamento Yutajé, March 1998

White-lored Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta

Forest canopy borders, second growth, slash and burn gardens, nesting Campamento Yutajé, March 1998

Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana:

Savanna woodland, scrub woodland, forest borders

Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana:

Throughout; nesting Campamento Yutajé July 1998

Opal-rumped Tanager Tangara velia:

Frequent, forest border and canopy flocks; core species of foraging mixed species flocks in Cecropia stands, slash and burn second growth, Pto Nuevo.

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Occasional, Terra Firme, canopy flocks

Spotted Tanager Tangara punctata

1 record, with mixed species flock, forest border, base of Cerro Yutajé, July 1996

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana


Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata

Male and female together, July 1996 with mixed-spp. flock including Blue Dacnis, Spangled Cotinga, Swallow Tanager

White-bellied Dacnis Dacnis albiventris

1 record, male and female, gardens Pto Nuevo

Yellow-bellied Dacnis Dacnis flaviventer

With Mixed species flock, Varzea (date?)

Short-billed Honeycreeper Cyanerpes nitidus

Throughout (honeycreeper spp. typical of foraging mixed species flocks in Cecropia stands, slash and burn second growth, Pto Nuevo)

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus


Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus


Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis

Throughout, flocks

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus

Throughout, forests borders, slash and burn second growth and gardens, Pto Nuevo)

Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides

Throughout (frequent slash and burn second growth and gardens, Pto Nuevo)

Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis

Flooded savanna

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina

Savanna (males displaying)

Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis

Savanna (woodland/forest border/scrub). Found nesting.

Large-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus crassirostris

1 record, Morichale swamp

Grey Seedeater Sporophila intermedia


Lined Seedeater Sporophila minuta


Plumbeous seed-eater Sporophila plumbea

1 record male and female together, Morichale swamp

Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis


Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta


Orange-fronted Yellow-Finch Sicalis columbiana:

Flooded savanna

Pectoral Sparrow Arremon taciturnus


Yellow-hooded Blackbird Agelaius icterocephalus

Flooded savanna

Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris

Flooded and dry savanna

Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivora

Sightings at C. cela colonies

Moriche Oriole Icterus chrysocephalus

Morichale and nesting in thatched palm roofs of Campamento Yutajé

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela


Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus

Regular sightings throughout; nesting Pto Nuevo

Olive Oropendola Psarocolius yuracares

Colonies throughout. Forms large feeding flocks.